February 2013

Navigating Graduate School

Being Productive

To be productive in graduate school is to be successful. For many, maintaining productivity is easier said than done, so we offer a few suggestions gleaned from GradHacker, a blog hosted at InsideHigherEd.com.

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Problem Solving

Despite your best intentions and thorough planning, complications arise: advisors leave, research stalls, bureaucracy slows you down, etc. It's easy to become discouraged by roadblocks, but in these instances you can draw on your problem solving skills and embrace flexibility.

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Good Practices in Graduate Education: Grading with Integrity

Student evaluation (assigning grades) is a fundamental part of education. After learning objectives have been established, grading assignments and exams is meant to determine how well each student meets the objectives. Because grades are so common in education, very little thought is given to grading integrity…
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Graduate Student Professional Development

Global Learning in the Classroom

Graduate Admissions received 2,453 applications from international students, representing 110 countries. An international climate exists in many of UNL's classrooms—students need to have an opportunity to learn with and from others (not just about others). This article helps you establish a welcoming culture in the classroom and a satisfying academic experience for all involved…
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Advice for the Defense

For many graduate students, one of the final requirements of a degree program is an oral defense of a dissertation or thesis…View it as an opportunity to show all you've learned the last several years…
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How to Run a Lab Efficiently

Learning how to direct and motivate people is just as crucial as understanding experiments or perfecting techniques. To reach the overarching goals of your lab, it's helpful to understand how to motivate each individual researcher…
read full article

Teaching Tip: Lecture Hints

The lecture is by far the most commonly-used teaching technique, but it doesn't need to be just a list of facts or a recap of the textbook…
read full article

The Graduate Writer: Writing a Cover Letter for a Job App

If you're approaching the last few semesters of your degree program, you might be seriously looking for a job to get you started in your chosen career path. Your goal is to get a job, but first you need an interview! Your cover letter is your best chance to get on the short list to be invited to interview for the job. How do you write a cover letter that will get you an interview?…
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News and Notes February 2013

Funding Opportunities February 2013

Being Productive

One key to being successful in graduate school is to be productive. However, for many this is easier said than done, so a few suggestions are in order. We’ve gleaned tips from GradHacker, a blog dedicated to graduate students hosted on Inside Higher Education

Make a Game of It

GradHacker recommends treating graduate school like a game. Author Katy Meyers suggests setting up goals and challenges to make grad school easier and a little more fun. The “gamer” in all of us can appreciate setting long and short-term goals, developing a rewards system, mapping out levels (and celebrating their completion), and creating mini-challenges or side projects that develop new skills. The rewards and feeling of achievement when you complete a level or challenge can make for excellent motivation.

Take Initiative

Taking initiative also leads to a productive graduate education. This is particularly important for those working with a dissertation or thesis committee. In this instance, GradHacker author Terry Brock says you should not wait for your advisor or other committee members to contact you; reach out to them using Doodle or another online service to schedule a meeting. Taking initiative demonstrates that you are dedicated to making progress and finishing; plus you’ll have one less thing to worry about. When setting up the meeting, include the details you want to discuss and attach any items you would like reviewed. It’s helpful to provide your committee with a timeline and adequate time for review. Before the meeting, prepare an agenda and email it to your committee. Following an agenda will keep the meeting on track, and your message will serve as a reminder to your committee to read your work beforehand. During the meeting, stick to your agenda and take good notes. Thank your committee for their time in an email afterwards and include the major points that were covered. These notes will help your committee keep a record of your discussions and outline what they can expect from you over the next few weeks. This follow-up email can also clarify any misunderstandings.

Be A Disciplined Writer

Discipline is key to productivity. Thomas H. Benton, author of "The 5 Virtues of Successful Graduate Students," suggest that graduate students work on their dissertations every day if possible. If you spend fewer than 20 hours a week on your writing, it will be difficult to be productive enough to get published, let alone produce a dissertation. Benton found the most success in writing for a few hours in the morning, when his "energy level is high and my mind is relatively clear." Find a time that works best for you and commit to working at that time every day. Similar to an exercise routine, discipline is crucual to seeing results and being productive.

Embracing these suggestions will help you enjoy graduate school and develop the skills that will benefit you in your future career.


Meyers, K. (2011 Nov. 4). "Gaming Graduate School"

Brock, T. (2011 June 1). "Hacking your Committee Meeting"

Problem Solving

In life and graduate school, sometimes "stuff happens." Despite your best intentions and thorough planning, complications arise: advisors leave, research stalls, bureaucracy slows you down, etc. It's easy to become discouraged by roadblocks, but in these instances you can draw on your problem solving skills and embrace flexibility. These qualities, which helped you gain admission to graduate school in the first place, will serve you well through your educational and professional career.

In Graduate School Companion, Peter Diffley tackles these issues under the heading, "When things go wrong." He offers advice on your relationships (with peers, family, and your advisor), research problems, and handling the bureaucracy of higher education. So what is a graduate student to do when (fill in the blank) happens?

You're not getting along with your labmates/officemates/other peers. At this point in your life, there's only so much you can do to change or improve your personality. However, it's critical to recognize that you'll likely be working with others throughout your graduate school and professional career, sometimes in close proximity. Starting graduate school is an excellent time to reevaluate yourself. Diffley cheekily points out that while you may have trouble pinpointing your good and bad qualities, "a spouse or immediate family member will be all too happy to help you with that." Work on strengthening your positive attributes and eliminating the negative, while keeping in mind that your ultimate goal is not necessarily to be friends with everyone you work with, but to maintain amicable, professional, and productive relationships.

Your advisor is retiring. If your advisor is retiring and has emeritus status, he or she may continue to co-chair your supervisory committee along with a UNL graduate faculty member. This is also true if your advisor is leaving the University for employment elsewhere and you are already in candidacy. If this is the case, you'll also need the approval of the Dean of Graduate Studies. Of course, you can also talk to your graduate chair for assistance in finding a new supervisory chair. The Graduate Bulletin outlines how you can make changes to your Supervisory Committee.

In the unlikely event your advisor passes away, you'll meet with your graduate chair to find a new advisor. Departments consider each individual student and work to find an advisor who'll best work with you and your topic of interest.

You're having trouble communicating with your advisor. Part of working effectively with your advisor is learning how to communicate effectively. If you find you don't see eye to eye, take a step back. What aren't you agreeing on? What's at stake? Once you've taken stock, sit down with your advisor to implement a plan. As Diffley notes, "Remember that your apprenticeship is officially over as soon as you graduate (it's not like your advisor is family) and that you can endure a lot for a short period of time." Unless your advisor's behavior is illegal, work to maintain the relationship and graduate as quickly as possible. If you're in fact facing discrimination or harassment, discuss the issue with your graduate chair or another trusted university official. At UNL, the Office of Student Assistance will address your questions confidentially.

Your research is floundering. All researchers hit roadblocks at some point, and you're no different. It is important to be able to recognize when you can salvage your work and when it's time to move on. Review your approaches to make sure you're using effective methods for getting your data. If your experiments aren't returning the expected results, ask your advisor or another experienced researcher for help with the procedure, taking note of any differences between their technique and your own. Ifyou've spent a great deal of time on the project, retreat to the point where you were getting positive results and find a new hypothesis to pursue. Finally, as a last resort, you might consider a new project (this option may seem more attractive if you're at the beginning of your project).


Peter Diffley, Graduate School Companion, New York: Random House, 2007.

Grading with Integrity

Grading With Integrity

Evaluation is a fundamental part of education. At the beginning of each semester, professors, instructors, and graduate teaching assistants lay out the objectives for each course as well as the assignments and class activities that will lead to achieving those objectives. Grading scales and final grades are meant to determine how well each student meets the course objectives. Because grades and grading are so common across pre- and post-secondary education, typically little thought is given to grading integrity.

In Is Grade Integrity a Fairness Issue? Jane Robbins discusses some of the reasons for and the consequences of grade inflation and lapses in grading integrity. There are a number of pressures to allow grade inflation. Instructors who give good grades receive good student reviews. A high GPA across the student body attracts top students to your institution, because people connect a high GPA with a bright student body. High grades can motivate students to continue with their degrees, when they might have quit due to poor grades. High grades can also help students secure better jobs post-graduation. The benefits to students, instructors, and institutions may seem compelling, but do they outweigh the consequences?

Robbins poses the question, “If we lower the bar so that our students are in a more competitive position, does that make it unfair to those who earned the higher grades, or who went to schools that maintain higher standards?” Maintaining integrity in grading is similar to maintaining academic integrity. For example, future employers and graduate admission committees rely on instructors to give accurate grades so they can make informed decisions when hiring or admitting potential candidates, just as researchers rely on colleagues to accurately report research results. Over time, even small breaches in this trust can damage reputations and relationships.

Grading integrity extends to relationships with students as well. D. Royce Sadler posed four propositions that relate to the fairness in student grading. These propositions are helpful for graduate teaching assistants and graders:

  • Students deserve to be graded according to quality and not in comparison to the work of other students (past and present).
  • Students deserve to understand how they will be graded. Sadler states, “There should be no surprises.”
  • Students deserve to be graded on a scale standard across the institution. Courses that are graded with excessive leniency or difficulty make it difficult for students to manage grading expectations across courses.
  • Students deserve a grade that will maintain value over time across the higher education systems.

Some of these propositions may seem challenging to take into account for every student. For example, how does an instructor know what grades will maintain value over time and across higher education systems? Experience will help you get a better feel for grading consistency across students and your institution.

In the meantime, there are simple things you can do to make sure students are graded for the quality of the assignment at hand. Ask students to write their name on the last page of their paper or use their NUID. This will help you avoid any unintentional bias in your grading. Help students understand how assignments will be graded by creating consistent and thorough grading rubrics. The Office of Graduate Studies provides teaching tools designed to help graduate teaching assistants create clear course objectives and rubrics.


Robbins, J. “Is Grade Integrity a Fairness Issue?” Inside Higher Ed. 2012. http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/sounding-board/grade-integrity-fairness-issue.

Sadler, D.R. “Grade integrity and the representation of academic achievement.” Studies in Higher Education 34 no. 7, (2009): 807-826.

Global Learning in the Classroom

Global Learning in the Classroom

In the fall of 2012, Graduate Admissions at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln received 2,453 applications from international students, representing 110 different countries. This shows us that an intercultural climate exists in many classrooms.

In his 2012 State of the University Address, Chancellor Perlman encouraged the University to send UNL students to study in a foreign country, because studying abroad helps prepare “students for their global future.” While all UNL students may not be able to study abroad, all students benefit from opportunities to connect, communicate, and collaborate with others locally and globally in the classroom. In order for students to develop an understanding of cultural differences and appreciate the resources and expertise that exist outside of their own countries, they need to have an opportunity to learn with and from others, not just about them. Here are some strategies from the Global Learning Faculty Development Program at Purdue that you can implement to provide a welcoming culture in the classroom as well as a satisfying academic experience for all.

  • Encourage communication. Group projects and in-class activities promote better communication between intercultural groups. Both international and domestic students may prefer to work in their own cultural groups, but having intercultural groups working together decreases stereotypes and helps students improve academically. They can then learn to foster intercultural friendships in settings outside the classroom.
  • Promote peer-pairing between international and domestic students. This will increase interaction and improve cultural awareness in domestic students. 
  • Consider using problem-based learning. Presenting problems from within and outside the U.S. allows the students to develop solutions together.
  • Hold class debates. Separate students into mixed groups and have them complete their research together, then stage a full debate during class. This helps students learn to articulate an argument orally, and they can use this strategy in other classes. Involved students have an easier time overcoming barriers in the classroom and are more successful academically.
  • Invite guest speakers. Speakers who are from other countries or have traveled outside the U.S. provide a different cultural perspective and expand global understanding.
  • Include international sources in references and examples. Use international professional associations and websites and consult with students about them. When possible, design assignments so students can help collect resources.
  • Know your students.  At the start of the semester, look at your students’ countries of origin and familiarize yourself with name pronunciation. This fosters respect between you and your students.

Opportunities for global exchanges and interactions in the classroom and beyond will continue to grow. By incorporating these strategies, you can create a learning environment that fosters global competence and exchange in your class. Remember, increasing opportunities for cultural exchange benefits everyone, not only the international students.


Calahan, Charles. The Global Learning Faculty Development Program. Purdue Center for Instructional Excellence. http://www.purdue.edu/cie/aboutus/global%20learning.html.

Bryant, M. “Fostering Community in the Classroom.” CENGAGE Learning eNewsletter. 2012. http://learn.cengage.com/content/enewsletter7-fostering.

Moorman, H. & Klein, J. “Get Real with Global Competence.” Education Week. January 10, 2013. http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/global_learning/2013/01/get_real_with_global_competence_1.html

Advice for the Defense

For doctoral candidates and many Master's degree students, one of the final steps after the dissertation or thesis is written includes an oral defense. If you're preparing for a defense, you may be worried. But while the word evokes war and keeping the attackers at bay, a defense can actually be enjoyable. You've spent months or years researching, writing, and revising, and now you have the chance to show what you've learned.

Here are a few tips to help prepare you for the defense:

  • Learn about the structure
    Ask your advisor about how the defense will be organized. Most defenses begin with a public presentation by the student, followed by a question and answer period alone with your committee. Know what to expect!
  • Outline the parts you'll present
    Know your research forwards and backwards. Rather than writing out your opening statement verbatim, use an outline to plan yout main and supporting points. In the opening statement you'll want to introduce your project, the questions that drove your research, your methods, and your results (and how your results are significant).
  • Attend another defense
    Chances are good that you've attended colleagues' defenses for the last few years. If you haven't, attend a few so you can see what they're like—from the format to the types of questions that are asked.
  • Talk to colleagues who've successfully defended
    Learn more about the dynamics in the defense and how defenses have gone in the past. Their experiences (and living proof that students survive this experience!) can help you feel more comfortable with your own.
  •  Anticipate possible questions
    Spend time thinking about what your committee might ask (keep their own areas of interest in mind!), and outline how you can address concerns they might raise. As with outlining the introduction, think about the main points you want to address when you answer the question.
  • Practice, Practice, Practice
    As you prepare, don't just write down what you plan to say during your presentation, or answers to potential questions. Speak aloud to get comfortable with the flow of ideas. This practice may make it easier for you to anticipate how others will respond to your thoughts, and that in turn will help you be better prepared.
  • Dress the part
    How you present yourself affects how your committee members see you and also how you see yourself. Whether you invest in a whole new outfit or simply a pair of shoes that are your "defense shoes," make an effort to present "the best you."
  • Have an answer ready (for questions you don't know the answer to)
    Your committee will be trying to identify the edge of what you know, and gauging your response when you're confronted with it. It's best to recognize and admit  it when your research didn't address this topic, or if you just don't know the answer. If you're not sure you understood the question, rephrase it. If appropriate, you might explain why your dissertation research didn't address the specific point, that the posed question could lead to further research, and you might improvise what a project designed to answer the question might look like. By showing that you could synthesize an answer, even while acknowledging that you do not know the answer, shows that you can effectively think on your feet and know the ways your field can be expanded.
  • Don't interrupt
    If the members of your committee are hashing things out over a smaller detail of your work or they're discussing tangential topics, use the time to sit back, take a sip of water, and regroup.

After all of your preparation, try not to be nervous. Remember, you know the work best. Each of your readers was chosen for his/her area of specialty, but when it comes to your work, you are the expert.


Zellner, Andrea. "What I've Learned About Defenses." GradHacker. November 29, 2012. http://wvvw.insidehighered.com/blogs/gradhacker/what-ive-learned-about -defenses


Running a Lab Efficiently

Most graduate students find themselves with research responsibilities, and for many this may be the first time they're given the opportunity to help run a lab. Learning how to direct and motivate people is just as crucial as understanding experiments or perfecting techniques. Edyta Zielinska presents excellent advice and suggestions for first-time and experienced lab managers alike in her article, "Motivate Your Lab: How to Run an Efficient and Creative Lab Without Micromanaging" in the June 1, 2012, Careers issue of The Scientist.

To reach the overarching goals of your lab, it's helpful to understand how to motivate each individual researcher. Social psychologist David Neal suggests determining which types of goals work: "Some people are better at avoidance goals. Some are better at approach goals." Knowing how to frame issues for each individual in your lab will help your team be more productive in reaching goals. Are your researchers motivated because they want to solve the problem, or are they motivated because they fear a lack of progress?

It can take years for researchers to see the results of their work in the lab. To stay motivated and focused, your team members will need grit. According to Angela Duckworth, a psychologist from the University of Pennsylvania, "Grit is defined as a characteristic of someone who sustains interest in projects, does not give up despite encountering obstacles, and diligently finds ways to improve his or her work." Grit can be cultivated; help your labmates by regularly reviewing roadblocks so you all can get in the habit of addressing problems early on.

One of the best ways to improve your skills in any area is to purposefully focus on your needs for improvement. Get in the habit of asking your researchers to spend a portion of their day or week on an issue or competency that they are not comfortable with. Encourage your team members to specify areas that need improvement and create a plan for addressing these areas.

"Mistake" is not always a dirty word. In fact, it can be helpful to make mistakes along the way, and an effective manager will encourage their researchers to try a new path. Rather than focusing on the negative of mistakes, "a careful assessment of all the specific reasons for the failure can make the setback feel more like an opportunity to learn than a disappointment," Zielinska advises. Consider implementing a practice of sharing setbacks during lab meetings.

Managing your team includes keeping tabs on motivation levels. If you find that a lab member is lacking interest in the project, consider the stated goals and the amount of correction you're providing. If a goal seems unimportant or unattainable, your researchers won't work diligently to reach them. Likewise, if a researcher feels that you're micromanaging and overcorrecting her work, she'll feel underappreciated. Review your actions first when working to maintain or increase motivation.

When setting goals for your lab, it can be encouraging for your researchers if projects are broken into small goals rather than establishing one large, overarching goal. This helps you and your co-researchers stay focused and motivated to make progress rather than be discouraged by the large task ahead. Addressing manageable sections of a project can lead to improved morale within your lab.

Managing a lab requires much more than technical know-how and scientific knowledge. To run a successful lab, you'll also need to know how to get the best and most from your fellow researchers and teammates. Directing and encouraging your team with clear and transparent policies and goals will help you use your most valuable resources in the lab-the researchers. Take the time and initiative to establish strong leadership and project management skills now while you have the opportunity to watch and learn from other lab managers and Pis on campus.

Lecture Hints

Lecture Hints

Perhaps the most commonly used teaching technique is the lecture. But a lecture is not simply a list of facts or a rereading of the textbook. And it doesn’t have to be a fifty-minute drone-fest – a well-planned lecture can be an integral component of an active teaching and learning strategy. 

      • Don't Cover It All. Base your lecture on the most important material in the reading assignment or a topic students are likely to find difficult. Make the students responsible for the assigned text reading, noting their questions and bringing them to class.
      • Make Choices. Your lecture should present no more than three or four major issues, with time for examples and questions. Identify the critical message of your lecture, then succinctly present the bare bones. Students will absorb the salient points easily if they are few in number, clear, and coupled with examples.
      • Chunk It. Break up your lecture into 15-minute chunks. Switch gears after each 15-minute mini-lecture and do something different: pose a discussion question, give a short in-class writing assignment, encourage small group discussion, or present a problem-solving activity.
      • Pose Reflective Questions. Reflective questions require students to think—not to simply reply yes or no (e.g., What would you do in this particular situation? How would you approach solving this problem?). Be sure to plan your questions, and be prepared to wait for an appropriate amount of time for an answer.
      • Get Them Writing. Rather than simply posing a question, ask students to write about the question first for 3 to 5 minutes, then solicit their responses. This will give them time to think through their answers and make them more comfortable expressing their views without fear of forgetting their point.

Writing a Job App Cover Letter

If you’re approaching the end of the road to your doctorate, you may be in the market for an academic job. The first step in getting a job is getting noticed. You might have a great CV and unbridled excitement about and dedication to your work, but hiring committees won’t see that without first making it through your cover letter. 

While your long range goal is to get a job, your more immediate goal is to use the cover letter to get on the shortlist of a dozen people who will be invited to submit more writing samples and have references checked, followed by the shortlist of three or four people who will be invited to interview for the job.

So how do you write a cover letter that will put you closer to your goal? Here are five rules that may offer some guidance.

Rule 1: Write like a colleague, not like a student. All other rules follow from this one. The hiring committee is not admitting you to a program of study – they’re looking for someone who can help RUN a program of study. Without being arrogant, be firm, confident, and forceful. Don’t make excuses for what you didn’t do or don’t know. You’re an expert in your field. Write like one.

Rule 2: Keep it professional. Use the letterhead of the department with which you’re affiliated. Demonstrate that you are a functioning professional by showing your mastery of proper letter writing etiquette and format. Address the letter to the chair of the search committee or department. Use a clear, readable font and limit the length to two pages (that’s right – two pages). Members of the hiring committee aren’t likely to give your cover letter more than five minutes of their time. A two-page letter that succinctly presents your achievements and your brilliance without undue verbiage shows respect for your future colleagues’ time (and eyesight).

Rule 3: Organize the letter logically.  Demonstrate your ability to think in logical sequence and to emphasize the kinds of things a hiring committee wants to know. Here’s one possible organizational plan for your cover letter:

    • Paragraph 1: Position you’re applying for and short self-introduction. Start by making it clear why you’re writing. Be straightforward: “Please accept my application for the assistant professor of sociology position currently open at State University.” Be sure to use the precise language from the job ad for the position, department and institution. Identify your general field, subfield, area of specialization and the name of your university.
    • Paragraph 2: Your primary research. Succinctly explain what you did/are doing, where and how you did/do it, and achievements arising from it, such as publications, conference papers, presentations, panels, and grants. If you're still working on your dissertation, mention when you expect to be awarded the degree. Also mention how many chapters have been completed and accepted, how many are in draft version, and your schedule for completion. 
    • Paragraph 3: How your primary research contributes to the field and discipline as a whole. Don’t spend a lot of time rehashing your dissertation. Explain—briefly!—how your research pushes boundaries, engages in dynamic new debates, and enlarges the discipline. Try to compress your dissertation description into a single paragraph, then explain how your work is changing the face of your discipline, engaging the leading thinkers in your field, or inspiring your teaching. 
    • Paragraph 4: Your publication plans. Indicate any articles in press or in process and where you plan to submit them. If your plans include publication of a book, mention the presses with whom you are in discussion, and set a timeline for the book, with a publication date ideally within 5 years of your hiring.
    • Paragraph 5: Your next project. It’s imperative to have a second research or book project in sight, one that arises organically out of the first. The committee will see the added value you bring to their institution when you can show that your expertise crosses boundaries and that you can teach in more than one area. You’ll come across as someone who’s going to keep up the work schedule through six years, into tenure, and beyond.
    • Paragraph 6: Your teaching. Briefly describe courses you’ve taught (as they tie in to your research), courses you’re interested in teaching, and courses you’d like to develop. Describe innovations in your teaching, students’ responses to your teaching, and the value colleagues place on your teaching.
    • Paragraph 7: Your unique qualifications for the job. Within a few sentences, address your general research focus and course work and point to your experience teaching in the domains mentioned in the job description. Frame your paragraph in such a way to show how you’d bring unique experience and dedication to the position. (Consider this paragraph your “elevator speech” – what you would say in the space of less than a minute to a member of the hiring committee whom you unexpectedly meet in an elevator.)
    • Paragraph 8: Options for following up. If you’ll be attending a professional conference in the near future, offer to meet there with the committee chair or one of her colleagues. Even better, if you’re presenting a paper at a conference, alert the committee so they can see you in action. Otherwise, indicate that you look forward to hearing from the committee soon, provide a phone number and email address, and close politely.

Rule 4: Show, don’t tell. Your cover letter should include evidence, not empty claims. For example, to say “I love teaching” means very little to a committee bent on finding a colleague who fits their department’s culture. Cite evidence that shows how passionate you are about teaching – did you introduce your students to field research that led several of them to publish articles? Did you use social media in your classroom in a way that led to innovative discussions? Did your colleagues adopt any of your teaching strategies?  If you make a claim, substantiate it.

Rule 5: Do your homework. Show that you’ve researched the department, know the faculty, have read their work, appreciate their contributions, and know the focus and specializations of their specific program. To help your readers see you as a perfect match, quote what you have found on the institution’s or department’s website and connect it to your profile. Mention one or two faculty members by name as potential collaborators (but don’t call them Professor So-and-So – use first and last names. See Rule 1 – you’re applying to become their colleague, not their student.). Be sure you tailor your cover letter to the specific position for which you’re applying. You can create a general cover letter template, but craft each letter specifically for each job to which you’re applying.

As with any crucial piece of writing, ask a trusted editor or advisor to proofread your letter, using these rules as a checklist. If your cover letter ticks off all the boxes, you can be confident you’ve gotten your job application off to the best start possible.


Kelsky, Karen. “Why Your Job Cover Letter Sucks (and what you can do to fix it).” The Professor Is In. August 7, 2011. .

Howard, Philip N.  “A Dozen Sentences That Should Appear In Your (Academic) Job Application Letter.” The Mentor Memo, University of Washington.

OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab. “Job Search Writing.”

Durand, Alain-Philippe. March 11, 2011. “Keys to the Cover Letter.” Inside Higher Ed.