My main goals are to understand the linkages between individual- and population-level responses to environmental stress and to use such understanding to improve ecological risk assessment and environmental management. Most of my work has involved aquatic invertebrates, and in particular animals that live in and feed on sediment.
My current research activities focus on linking modelling and empirical approaches for studying population dynamics and are at the interface of quantitative ecology and environmental management. Through this work we intend to identify the optimal modelling approaches for different kinds of population-level questions in terms of degree of sophistication and complexity required. A very central question is to determine how much complexity is needed in the models and how to communicate this effectively to various stakeholders.
I am currently participating in a European Union grant to study ‘The reactivity and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles: risks to the environment and human health’ (NanoReTox; 1 Dec 2008 - 30 Nov 2012; http://www.nanoretox.eu) with 11 partner organizations. My group's role in NanoReTox is to explore the bioavailability and toxicity of engineered metallo-nanoparticles for sediment-dwelling organisms.
I am also participating in a European Union Initial Training Network on ‘Mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals’ (CREAM; 1 Sep 2009 - 31 Aug 2012; http://cream-itn.eu/), with 12 partner organizations. The overall aims of CREAM are to: 1) Formulate and test guidance for Good Modeling Practice that ensures transparent and reliable decision support for chemical risk assessment; 2) Develop a suite of well-tested and validated mechanistic ecological effect models for a range of organisms and ecosystems relevant for chemical risk assessments; and 3) Provide world-class training for the next generation of modelers, emphasizing transparency and rigorous model evaluation as core elements of models for decision support.
Since I am new to UNL, I am currently seeking new collaborative and mentoring opportunities.
Submitted & In Press
*Hamda Nt, Forbes VE, Stark J, Laskowski R. (submitted). Stochastic density dependent matrix model for extrapolating individual-level effects of chemicals to the population; Case study on effects of Cd on Folsomia candida. Ecol Model
*Forbes VE, Calow P. (submitted). Complexity and relevance in ERA: Why and how they need to be addressed. Integr Environ Assess Manag.
*Hunka A, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. (submitted). Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with non-experts. Integr Environ Assess Manag.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. (in press). The use of the ecosystem services concept in ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag.
*Pang C, Selck H, Banta GT, Forbes VE. (submitted). Toxicokinetics of aqueous Cu and Nano-CuO particles in the snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Ecotoxicology
*Cong Y, Banta GT, Selck H, Berhanu D, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. (submitted). Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor. Environ Sci Technol.
*Pang C, Selck H, Misra SK, Berhanu D, Dybowska A, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. (submitted). Bioaccumulation and effects of copper from sediment amended with aqueous Cu, nano-CuO og micro-CuO to the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Environ Toxicol Chem.
*Meli M, Auclerc A, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE, Grimm V. 2013 Population-level consequences of spatially heterogeneous exposure to heavy metals in soil: an individual-based model of springtails. Ecol Model 250: 338-351.
*Hunka A, Meli M, Thit A, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2013. Stakeholders’ perspectives on ecological modeling in environmental risk assessment of pesticides – challenges and opportunities. Risk Analysis. 33: 68-79.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2012. Promises and problems for the new paradigm for risk
assessment and an alternative approach involving predictive systems models. Environ Toxicol Chem. 31: 2663-2671.
*Dai L, Selck H, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2012. Fate and effects of acetyl cedrene in sediments inhabited by the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta. Environ Toxicol Chem. 31: 2639-2646.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2012. Ecotoxicology. In: Sourcebook in Theoretical Ecology; Hastings A, Gross L. (eds), University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
*Galic N, Schmolke A, Forbes VE, Baveco H, van den Brink P. 2012. The role of ecological models in linking ecological risk assessment to ecosystem services in agroecosystems. Sci Tot Environ415: 93-100.
* Nienstedt K, Brock T, van Wensem J, Montforts M, Hart A, Hardy A, Aagaard A, Alix A, Boesten J, Bopp SK, Brown C, Capri E, Forbes VE, Köpp H, Liess M, Luttik R, Maltby L, Sousa P, Streissl F. 2012. Developing specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides using an ecosystem services approach. Sci Tot Environ 415: 31-38.
*Pang C, Selck H, Misra SK, Berhanu D, Dybowska A, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2011. Effects of sediment-associated copper to the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum: a comparison of Cu added in aqueous form or as nano- and micro-CuO particles. Aquat Toxicol 106-107: 114-122.
*Cong Y, Banta GT, Selck H, Berhanu D, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2011. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Aquat Toxicol 105: 403-411.
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Grimm V, Hayashi TI, Jager T, Katholm A, Palmqvist A, Pastorok R, Salvito D, Sibly RM, Spromberg J, Stark J, Stillman RA. 2011. Adding value to ecological risk assessment with population modeling. Human Ecol Risk Assess 17:287-299.
*Cong Y, Pang C, Dai L, Banta G, Selck H, Forbes VE. 2011. Importance of characterizing nanoparticles before conducting toxicity tests. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7(3): 502-503.
Breitholtz M, Lundström E, Dahl U, Forbes VE. 2010. Improving the value of standard toxicity test data in REACH. Chapter 6, pp 85-98, In: Regulating Chemical Risks: European and Global Challenges. Eriksson J, Gilek M, Rudén C, (eds), Springer, Dordrecht.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2010. Ecological risk assessment should be value-relevant but not value-biased. Integr Environ Assess Manag 6: 784-785.
*Forbes VE, Olsen M, Palmqvist A, Calow P. 2010. Environmentally sensitive life-cycle traits have low elasticity: implications for theory and practice. Ecol Appl.20: 1449-1455
*Ellegaard-Petersen L, Selck H, Prieme A, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2010. Fate and effects of acetyl cedrene on Capitella teleta and sediment bacterial community. Ecotoxicology. 19: 1046-1058.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2010. Contaminant effects on population demographics. Pp. 293-297, In: MC Newman (ed). Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, 3rd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
*Nabe-Nielsen J, Sibly R, Forchhammer MC, Forbes VE, Topping C. 2010. The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations. PLoS ONE 5(1): e8932, doi:10.137/journal.pone.0008932..
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Grimm V, Hayashi T, Jager T, Palmqvist A, Pastorok R, Salvito D, Sibly R, Spromberg J, Stark J, Stillman RA. 2010. Integrating population modeling into ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag.6: 191-193
Thorbek P, Forbes V, Heimbach F, Hommen U, Thulke H-H, Van den Brink PJ, Wogram J, Grimm V, editors. 2010. Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future. Pensacola and Boca Raton (FL): Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and CRC Press.
Forbes VE. 2010. The role of ecological modelling in risk assessments seen from an academic’s point of view. In: Thorbek P, Forbes V, Heimbach F, Hommen U, Thulke H-H, Van den Brink P, Wogram J, Grimm V, editors. Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future. Pensacola and Boca Raton (FL, USA): Soceity of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and CRC Press.
*Ramskov T, Selck H, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2009. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I. Environ Toxicol Chem.28: 2695-2705
*Bach L, Dahllöf I, Forbes VE. 2009. The amphipod Orchomenella pinguis – a potential bioindicator for contamination in the Arctic. Mar Pollut Bull. 58: 1664-1670.
Topping CJ, Dalkvist T, Forbes VE, Grimm V, Sibly RM. 2009. The potential for the use of agent-based models in ecotoxicology, pp. 205-235, In: Ecotoxicology Modeling, Emerging Topics in Ecotoxicology: Principles, Approaches and Perspectives; J Devillers (ed), Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0197-2_8
*Grimm V, Ashauer R, Forbes V, Hommen U, Preuss TG, Schmidt A, van den Brink PJ , Wogram J, Thorbek P. 2009. CREAM: A European project on mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 16: 614-617, DOI 10.1007/s11356-009-0228-z
*Dalkvist T, Topping CJ, Forbes VE. 2009. Population-level effects of pesticide-induced chronic effects on individuals depend more on ecology than toxicology. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 72: 1663-1672.
*Sibly RM, Nabe-Nielsen J, Forchhammer MC, Forbes VE, Topping CJ. 2009. The effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of four animal species in a Danish landscape. BMC Ecology. 9:18, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-9-18.
*Pedersen S, Selck H, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2009. Effects of the polycyclic musk, HHCB, on individual- and population-level endpoints in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 72: 1190-1199.
*Forbes VE, Hommen U, Thorbek P, Heimbach F, Van den Brink PJ, Wogram J, Thulke H-H, Grimm V. 2009. Ecological models in support of regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: developing a strategy for the future. Integr Environ Assess Manag 5: 167-172.
*Preuss TG, Hommen U, Alix A, Ashauer R, van den Brink P, Chapman P, Ducrot V, Forbes VE, Grimm V, Schäfer D, Streissl F, Thorbek P. 2009. Mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals (MEMoRisk) – a new SETAC-Europe Advisory Group. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 16: 250-252.
*Ramskov T, Forbes VE. 2008. Life history and population dynamics of the opportunistic polychaete Capitella sp. I in relation to sediment organic matter. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 369: 181-192
*Forbes VE, Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, van der Hoeven N, Caspers N. 2008. Effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on fecundity, egg hatchability and juvenile growth of Marisa cornuarietis. Environ Toxicol Chem. 27:2332-2340.
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Sibly RM. 2008. The extrapolation problem and how population modeling can help. Environ Toxicol Chem. 27:1987-1994.
*Hjorth M, Forbes VE, Dahllöf I. 2008. Plankton stress responses from PAH exposure and nutrient enrichment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 363:121-130
Forbes VE, Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, van der Hoeven N, Caspers N. 2008. Response from Forbes et al. to Oehlmann et al. Ecotox Environ Saf. 69:580-581.
Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2008. Demographic effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene, on two sibling species of the polychaete Capitella capitata. In: Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological Risk Assessment, HR Akçakaya, JD Stark, TS Bridges (eds), Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 200-212.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2008. Ecotoxicology: not just wildlife toxicology. In: Introduction to Toxicology, H Greim, R Snyder (eds), Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 194-203.
*Syberg K, Engell-Kofoed AE, Pedersen H, Cedergreen N, Forbes VE. 2008. Mixture toxicity of three toxicants with similar and dissimilar mode of action to Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 69: 428-436.
*Palmqvist A, Rasmussen LJ, Forbes VE. 2008. Relative impact of coexposure compared to single-substance exposure on the biotransformation and toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene in the marine polychaete Capitella s. I. Environ Toxicol Chem 27: 375-386.
Wentsel R, Beyer N, Forbes V, Maund S, Pastorok R. 2008. A framework for population-level ecological risk assessment. In. LW Barnthouse, WR Munns, Jr, MT Sorensen (eds), Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 211-238.
De Zwart D, Warne-Lorscheider A, Forbes VE, Posthuma L, Peijnenburg W, van de Meent D. 2008. Matrix and media extrapolation. In: Extrapolation Practice for Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization of Chemicals, KR Solomon, TCM Brock, D de Zwart, SD Dyer, L Posthuma, SM Richards, H Sanderson, PK Sibley, PJ van den Brink (eds), CRC, Boca Raton FL, USA, pp 33-74.