An intensive study of some basic problems in the theory of knowledge: the nature of knowledge, the analysis of perception and memory, the justification of induction, the problem of how one knows other minds, and the analysis of a priori knowledge. Readings are chiefly from recent work.

Prerequisites: All 400-level philosophy courses have a prerequisite of 9 hours of philosophy, or permission of the instructor. All 800-level philosophy courses have a prerequisite of graduate standing, or permission of the instructor.

Frequency: Philosophy 409/809 is offered once every two years.