Charles Wood, PhD

Lewis Lehr/3M University Professor
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, School of Biological Sciences
Director, Nebraska Center for Virology
102 C Morrison Center
Lincoln, NE 68583-0900
Phone: 402.472.4550 Fax: 402.472.3323

Please visit our Lab Webpage

HIV and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Pathogenesis

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating disease that is caused by a retrovirus known as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Infected individuals are not only immunosuppressed but also frequently develop malignancies, such as lymphomas and Kaposi’s sarcoma. The Wood laboratory has been involved in the molecular biology of HIV and a recently identified human herpesvirus associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) named KSHV.

KSHV has been linked to HIV and Kaposi’s sarcoma but its route of transmission and whether infection by this virus can directly cause KS are not known. Dr. Wood’s laboratory has found that the infection rate is extremely high in Zambia, a central African nation that lies in the heart of the AIDS epidemic. Dr. Wood’s study involves the recruitment of mother/infant pairs at birth to determine (1) the seroprevalence for HIV and KSHV, (2) whether KSHV DNA can be found in infants’ blood, and (3) to determine the source of vertical and/or horizontal transmission.

One of the laboratory’s findings is that HIV infects 30% of Zambia’s normal female population and 40% are infected by KSHV. Therefore, the implications for disease development and transmission of both HIV and KSHV to babies are enormous. Given this high incidence of infection, the Wood lab has been studying whether KSHV can be transmitted from mothers to their newborns, whether infected children will develop KS, and whether HIV is a co-factor for transmission.

The laboratory has also found that almost all Zambian HIV are of subgroup C and are rapidly spreading in Zambia. Unfortunately, very little is known about subgroup C’s viral biological properties, pathogenesis, and genetic evolution in infected individuals. Dr. Wood has been characterizing a panel of subtype C HIV isolated from infected infants at various time points after birth to understand the natural evolution of these viruses and to correlate them to disease progression. The goal of these studies is to better understand the biology of this virus and its transmission so that strategies can be developed to block its transmission. Studies are now underway to generate a chimeric virus between the subtype C HIV-1 and a simian immunodeficiency virus so that an animal model can be generated to test various strategies to block vertical HIV transmission.

Another focus of the Wood laboratory is the control of KSHV replication at the molecular level. KSHV characteristically establishes latent infections in target cells where viral gene expression is highly limited and tightly controlled. The virus can then periodically reactivate to go through lytic replication. Although latent infection may play a role in sustained viral infection and tumorigeneisis, lytic reactivation has been implicated to be important for KS development. Therefore, the understanding of how the virus maintains latency and of the viral genes involved is of significance. The laboratory has been studying a viral gene called “Regulator of Transcription Activation” (RTA), which is the central gene involved in the switch from latent to lytic replication. The laboratory has identified a cellular factor that interacts with RTA and enhances its transactivation function, and is actively deciphering the molecular mechanism involved in their interaction and transactivation of viral gene transcription. This study will lead to the development of strategies in preventing the virus from going through lytic replication and KS development.

Selected Recent Articles

  1. Kumar P., Kuwa, N., Minhas, V., Marimo, C., Shea, D., Kankasa C. and Wood, C. 2013. Higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against KSHV in KS patients compared to asymptomatic individuals. PLoS One (in Press).
  2. Cao Y., Minhas V., Tan, X., Huang J., Wang B., Zhu M., Gao Y., Zhao T., Yang L. and Wood, C. 2013. High prevalence of early childhood infection by KSHV in a minority population in China. Clin Micro and Infect (in Press).
  3. Bohl, C., Bowder, D., Thompson, J., Abrahamyan, L., Gonzalez-Ramirez  S., Mao Y., Sodroski, J., Wood, C., Xiang, S. 2013.  A twin-cysteine motif in the V2 region of gp120 is associated with SIV envelope trimer stabilization. PLoS One (in Press).
  4. Guo, H., Liu, C., Geng, Y., Chen, Q., Wood, C., Kong, X. 2013. Analysis of primary resistance mutations to HIV-1 entry inhibitors in therapy naive subtype C HIV-1 infected mother-infant pairs from Zambia. J Clin Virology (In Press)
  5. Bohl, C., Abrahamyan, L. and Wood, C. 2013. Human Ubc9 is involved in intracellular HIV-1 Env stability after trafficking out of the trans-Golgi network in a Gag dependent manner. PLoS One, 8(7):e69359.
  6. Tso, FY., Abrahamyan, L., Hu, S H., Ruprecht, R. and Wood, C. 2013. Variations in the biological functions of HIV-1 clade C envelope in a SHIV-infected rhesus macaque during disease progression. PLoS One, 8 (6):e66973.
  7. Rao V., Neogi, U., Talboom, J., Padilla, L., Rahman, M., Fritz-French, C., Gonzalez, S., Wood, C., Ruprecht, R., Ranga, U., Azim, T., Joska, J., Eugenin, E., Shet, A., Bimonte-Nelson, H., Tyor, W. and Prasad, V. 2013. Clade C HIV-1 isolates circulating in Southern Africa exhibit a greater frequency of dicysteine motif-containing Tat variants that cause increased neurovirulence. Retrovirology 10:61.
  8. Smith A., Wood C. and West J. 2013.  HIV-1 Env C2-V4 Diversification in a Slow-Progressor Infant Reveals a Flat but Rugged Fitness Landscape  PLoS One 29 Apr
  9. Joseph J., Achim C., Boivin M., Brew B., Clifford D., Colosi D., Ellis R., Heaton R., Gallo-Diop A., Grant I., Kanmogne G., Kumar M., Letendre S., Marcotte T., Nath A., Pardo C., Paul R., Pullian L., Robertson K., Royal W., Sacktor N, Sithinamsuwan P., Smith D., Valcour V., Wigdahl B and Wood C. 2013. Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable (Review). J Neurovirology 19(1):1-9.
  10. Gonzalez, S., Tully, DC., Gondwe, C., Wood, C. 2013. Low-Abundance Resistant Mutations in HIV-1 Subtype C Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve Individuals as Revealed by Pyrosequencing Current HIV Research, 11, 43-49 43
  11. Zhang, T., Lin, H., Minhas, V., Zhu, V., Wood, C., He, N. 2012. Prevalence and Correlates of Kaposi`s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Infection among A Sample of Men Having Sex with Men in Eastern China. Epidemiology and Infection. Oct 31:1-8. [Epub ahead of print].
  12. Zhang TJ, He N, Ding YY, Jiang QW, Wood C. 2012. Antibody responses to lytic and latent human herpesvirus 8 antigens among HIV-infected patients in central China. Biosci Trends. 6(3):122-9.
  13. Guo, H., Abrahamyan, L.G., Liu, C., Waltke, M., Geng, Y., Chen, Q., Wood, C., Kong, X. 2012. Comparative analysis of the fusion efficiency elicited by Env V1-V5 regions derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted perinatally. 2012. J. Gen Virol. J Gen Virol. 2012 Sep 5. (Epub ahead of print).
  14. Olp, L., Shea, D., White, M., Kankasa, C., Wood, C. 2012. Early Childhood Infection of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus in Zambian Households: a Molecular Analysis. Int J Cancer. July 19 (Pub ahead of print).
  15. Tso, F.Y., Tully, D.C., Gonzalez, S., Quince, C., Ho, O., Polacino, P., Ruprecht, R.M., Hu, S.L., Wood, C. 2012. Dynamics of Envelope Evolution in Clade C SHIV-infected Pigtailed Macaques during Disease Progression analyzed by Ultra-deep Pyrosequencing. 2012 PLoS One. 7(3):e32827
  16. Thompson, J., MacMillan, M. Karen Boegler, K. Wood, C. Elder, J. and VandeWoude, S. 2011. Pathogenicity and Rapid Growth Kinetics of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Are Linked to 3′ Elements PLoS ONE, published 26 Aug 2011.
  17. Holguin A, Banda M, Willen EJ, Malama C, Chiyenu KO, Mudenda VC. and Wood C. 2011. HIV-1 Effects on Neuropsychological Performance in a Resource-Limited Country, Zambia. AIDS Behav. July (Epub ahead of print).
  18. Lei, Y., Kgomotso Makhaola, K, Pittayakhajonwut, D., Wood, C. and Angeletti, P. 2011. Human Papillomavirus 16 Variants from Zambian women with Normal Pap Smears. J Med Virology 73(9):1085-92.
  19. Constantino,A., Huang,Y., Zhang, Z., Wood, C. and Zheng, J. 2011. HIV-1 Clades B and C Exhibit Differential Infectivity: Relevance to Macrophage-Mediated Neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res. 2011 Oct;20 (3):277-88. Epub Feb 19.
  20. Minhas, V., Crabtree, K., Chao, A., Wojcicki, J., Sifuniso, A., Nkonde, C., Kankasa, C., Mitchell, C. and Wood, C. 2011. The Zambia Children’s KS-HHV8 Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Study Methods. Am J of Epidemiology 73(9):1085-92.
  21. Zhang T, Wang Y, Zhang L, Liu B, Xie J, Wood C, Wang J. 2011. Lysine Residues of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect the Replication and Transcription Activator-mediated Lytic Replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus/ Human Herpesvirus 8. J Gen Virol. 92:181-187.
  22. Iordanskiy, S., Waltke., M., Feng, Y., Wood, C. 2010. Subtype-associated differences in HIV-1 reverse transcription affect the viral replication. Retrovirology. Oct 12;7(1):85. Epub ahead of print. PMCID in Process.
  23. Zhang H., Tully, D.C., Zhang, T., Moriyama, H., Thompson, J., Wood, C. 2010. Molecular Determinants of HIV-1 Subtype C Coreceptor Transition from R5 to R5X4. Virology 407(1):68-79.
  24. Gonzalez, S., Gondwe, C., Tully, D.C., Minhas, V., Shea, D., Kankasa, C., M’soka, T., and Wood, C. 2010. Anti-Retroviral Therapy Resistance Mutations Present in the HIV Type 1 Subtype C pol and env Regions from Therapy Naïve Patients in Zambia. AIDS Res and Human Retrovirus. 26:795-803.
  25. Zhang, T., He, H., Ding, Y., Crabtree, K., Minhas, V., Wood, C. 2010. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in rural community with high risk for blood borne infections in central China. Clin Microbiol Infect. Jun 8 (Epub ahead of print)
  26. Tully, D.C., Wood, C. 2010. Chronology and evolution of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia. AIDS. Jun 19;24(10):1577-82.
  27. Robertson K, Liner J, Hakim J, Sankalé JL, Grant I, Letendre S, Clifford D, Diop AG, Jaye A, Kanmogne G, Njamnshi A, Langford TD, Weyessa TG, Wood C, Banda M, Hosseinipour M, Sacktor N, Nakasuja N, Bangirana P, Paul R, Joska J, Wong J, Boivin M, Holding P, Kammerer B, Van Rie A, Ive P, Nath A, Lawler K, Adebamowo C, Royal W 3rd, Joseph J. 2010 NeuroAIDS in Africa. J Neurovirol. Jun 16(3):189-202.
  28. Wen, H.J., Yang, Z., Zhou, Y., Wood, C. 2010. Enhancement of autophagy during lytic replication by the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and transcription activator. J Virol. 84(15):7448-58. PMCID in Process.
  29. Minhas, V., Brayfield, B.P., Crabtree, K.L., Kankasa, C., Mitchell, C.D., Wood, C. 2010. Primary gamma-herpesviral infection in Zambian children. BMC Infect Dis. May 12:10:155.
  30. Yang Z and Wood C. 2010. The replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kapsarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8. Frontiers in Biology, 5(2), 105-115.
  31. Zhang, H., Rola, M., West, J, Tully, D., Kubis, P., He, J., Kankasa, C. and Wood, C. 2010. Functional Properties of the HIV-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated with Mother to-Child Transmission. Virology May 10;400(2):164-74.
  32. Zhang, H., Tully, D.C., Hoffmann, F.G., He, J., Kankasa, C., Wood, C. 2010. Restricted genetic diversity of HIV-1 subtype C envelope glycoprotein from perinatally infected Zambian infants. PLoS ONE, Feb 18:5(2):e9294.
  33. K Bowa, K., Wood, C., Chao, A., Chintu, C., Mudenda, V. and Chikwenya, M A review of the epidemiology of cancers at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2009. Tropical Doctor, 39: 5-7.
  34. Jaber, T., Bohl, C.R., Lewis, G.L., Wood, C., West, J.T. Jr., Weldon, R.A. Jr. 2009. Human Ubc9 contributes to the production of fully infectious HIV-1 virions. J Virol, 83(20):10448-59.
  35. Tso, F.Y., Hoffmann, F.G., Tulley, D.C., Lemey, P., Rasmussen, R.A., Zhang, H., Ruprecht, R.M., Wood, C. 2009. A Comparative study of HIV-1 clade C env evolution in a Zambian infant with an infected rhesus macaque during disease progression. AIDS Sept 10; 23(14):1817-28.
  36. Yang, Z., Wen, HJ., Minhas, V., Wood, C. 2009. The zinc finger DNA-binding domain of K-RBP plays an important role in regulating Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RTA-mediated gene expression. Virology Sep 1;391(2):221-31.
  37. Wen HJ, Minhas V, Wood C. 2009. Identification and characterization of a new Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and transcription activator (RTA)-responsive element involved in RTA-mediated transactivation. J Gen Virol. Apr;90(Pt 4):944-53.
  38. Siddappa, N.B., Song, R., Kramer, V.G., Chenine, A-L., Velu, V., Ong, H., Rasmussen, R. A., Grisson, R.D., Wood, C., Zhang, H., Kankasa, C., Amara, R.R., Else, J.G., Novembre, F.J., Montefiori, D.C., and Ruprecht, R. 2009. Neutralization-Sensitive R5-Propic Simian-Human Immunodefiency Virus HSIV-2873Nip, Which Carries env Isolated from and Infant with a Recent HIV Clade C Infection. J Virol 83(3); 1422-1432.
  39. Kong, X., West, J.T., Shea, D.M., M’soka, T.J., Wood, C. 2008. The HIV-1 evelope confers higher replicative fitness to perinatally transmitted viruses. J Virol 82(23);11609-18.
  40. Wojcicki, J., Mwanahamuntu, M., Minhas, V., Djokic, B., Kankasa, W., Brayfield, B., Phiri, S., Wood, C. and Mitchell, C. 2008. Mortality among HIV-1 and HHV-8 affected Mother-Infant pairs in Zambia. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 17(9):2238-43.
  41. Minhas, V., Crabtree, K.L., Chao, A., M’soka, T.J., Kankasa, C., Bulterys, M., Mitchell, C.D., and C. Wood. 2008. Early Children Infection by Human Herpesvirus 8 in Zambia and the Role of Human Immunodefiency Virus Type 1 Coinfection in a Highly Endemic Area. Am J Epidemiol. 168(3):311-20.
  42. Minhas, V., Crosby, L.N., Crabtree, K.L., Phiri, S., M’soka, T.J., Kankasa, C., Harrington, W.J., Mitchell, C.D. and C. Wood. 2008. Development of an immunoflourescent assay using recombinant proteins expressed in insent cells for the screening and confirmation of human herpesvirus 8 antibodies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 15(8):1259-64.
  43. Yang, Z., Yan., Z. and C. Wood. 2008. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associted herpesvirus transactivator RTA promotes degradation of the repressors to regulate viral lytic replication . J Virol. 82:3590-603.
  44. Hoffman, F. G., He, X., West, J. T., Lemey, P., Kankasa, C. and C. Wood. 2008. Genetic variation in mother-child acute seroconverter pairs from Zambia. AIDS 23; 22:817-24.
  45. Santhi G., H. Sneller, L. Walters, J. G. Sharp, S. J. Pirruccello, J. T. West, C. Wood, S. Dewhurst, H.E. Gendelman, and L. Poluektova. 2007. HIV-1 pathobiology studied in humanized Balb/c-Rag2-/-c-/- mice. J Virol 81:2700-12.
  46. Yang, Z., and C. Wood. 2007. The transcriptional repressor K-RBP modulates RTA-mediated transactivation and lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 81:6294-306.
  47. Ng'andwe, C., J. J. Lowe, P. J. Richards, L. Hause, C. Wood, and P. C. Angeletti. 2007. The distribution of sexually transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. BMC Infect Dis 7:77
  48. Wojcicki, J.M., C. Kankasa, C. Mitchell and C. Wood. 2007. Traditional Practices and Exposure to Bodily Fluids in Lusaka, Zambia. J of Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12:150-5.
  49. Zhang, H., F. Hoffmann, J. He, X. He, C. Kankasa, J. T. West, C. D. Mitchell, R. M. 
    Ruprecht, G. Orti, and C. Wood. 2006. Characterization of HIV-1 subtype C envelope glycoproteins from perinatally infected children with different courses of disease. Retrovirology 3:73.
  50. Song, R. J., A. L. Chenine, R. A. Rasmussen, C. R. Ruprecht, S. Mirshahidi, R. D. Grisson, W. Xu, J. B. Whitney, L. M. Goins, H. Ong, P. L. Li, E. Shai-Kobiler, T. Wang, C. M. McCann, H. Zhang, C. Wood, C. Kankasa, W. E. Secor, H. M. McClure, E. Strobert, J. G. Else, and R. M. Ruprecht. 2006. Molecularly cloned SHIV-1157ipd3N4: a highly replication- competent, mucosally transmissible R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV clade C Env. J Virol 80:8729-38.
  51. St Lawrence, J.S., W. Klaskala, C Kankasa, J .T. West, C. D. Mitchell and C. Wood. 2006. Factors Associated with HIV prevalence in a pre-partum cohort of Zambian women. Int J STD AIDS 17:607-13
  52. Bagasra, O., D. Patel, L. Bobroski, J. A. Abbasi, A. U. Bagasra, H. Baidouri, T. Harris, A. El-Roeiy, Z. Lengvarszky, H. Farzadegan, and C. Wood. 2006. Locatization of human 
    herpesvirus type 8 in human sperms by in situ PCR. J Mol Histol:1-12.
  53. Wood, C and Harrington, W, Jr. 2005. AIDS and associated malignancies. Cell Res 15(11-12):947-952.
  54. Zhang, H., Hoffmann, F., He, J., He, X., Kankasa, C., Ruprecht, R., West, J. T., Orti, G., and C. Wood. 2005. Evolution of subtype C HIV-1 Env in a slowly progressing Zambian infant. J. Retrovirology 2:67.
  55. Burkala, E.J., J. He, J.T. West, C. Wood, and C.K. Petito. 2005. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 in the central nervous system: role of the choroid plexus. AIDS 19:675-84.
  56. Cavacini, LA, Duval M, Patil A, Wood C, Mayer KH, Ruprecht RM, Posner MR. 2005. 
    Dichotomy in cross-clade reactivity and neutralization by HIV-1 sera: Implications for 
    active and passive immunotherapy. J Med Virol 76:146-52.
  57. Zhang, J., J. Wang, C. Wood, and L. Zhang. 2005. KSHV/HHV-8 replication and transcription activator (RTA) regulates viral and cellular genes via ISRE. J Virol 79:5640-52.
  58. Wang, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, L., Harrington Jr., W., West, J. T., and C. Wood. 2005. Modulation of human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RTA transactivation by interferon regulatory factor 7. J. Virol. 79:2420-2431.
  59. Klaskala, W., Brayfield, B.P., Kankasa, C., Bhat, G., West, J.T., Mitchell, C.D., and C. Wood. 2005. Epidemiological Characteristics of Human Herpesvirus-8 Infection in a Large Population Group of Antenatal Women. J. Med. Virol, 75:93-100.
  60. Grisson, R. D., A. Chenine, L. Yeh, J. He, C. Wood, C. Kankasa, W. Xu, and R. Ruprecht. Infectious molecular clone of a recently transmitted pediatric HIV clade C isolate from Africa: Evidence of intra-clade recombination. 2004. J Virol. 2004; 78:14066-9.
  61. Filgueira-Perez, D. M., B.P. Brayfield, S. Phiri, M.V. Borca, C. Wood, and T. J. Morris. 2004. Preserved antigenicity of HIV-1 p24 produced and purified in high yields from plants inoculated with a tobacco mosaid virus (TMV)-derived vector. J. Virological Methods. 121: 201-208.
  62. Brayfield, B., Kankasa, J. West, J. Muyanga, G. Bhat, W. Klaskala, C. Mitchell, and C. Wood. 2004. Distribution of Kaposi SarcomaAssociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8 in Maternal Saliva and Breast Milk in Zambia: Implications for Transmission. J. Inf. Dis. 189:2260-70.
  63. West J and C. Wood. 2003. The Role of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesviruses/Human Herpesvirus-8 Regulator of Transcription Activation (RTA) in Control of Gene Expression. Oncogene 22:5150-5163.


University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
BA, Chemistry & Microbiology

Columbia University, New York, NY
PhD, Microbiology

Basal Institute of Technology
Postdoc, Molecular Immunology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Postdoc, Molecular Immunology

Professsional Experience

Research Assistant, Laboratory of Professor Elvin A Kabat; Dept. of Microbiology
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY

Research Associate in the Laboratory of Professor Susumu Tonegawa
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Staff Scientist (Group Leader), Molecular Immunologist, Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Department
Abbott Labs, North Chicago, IL

Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology
University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS

Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology
University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS

Director, Div. of Neurovirology; Associate Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, Immunology and Neurology
University of Miami, Miami, FL

Lewis Lerh/3M Professor, School of Biological Sciences
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE

Director, Nebraska Center for Virology
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE

Honors and Professional Affiliations

  • NIAID Review Panel Member (2003- 2008)
  • Review Panel Member, California University wide AIDS Research Program (1997-current)
  • Ad Hoc Member, AIDS and Related Research (AOIC) Ad Hoc member (2001-current), NIDCR AIDS Malignancies Special Panel (2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006)
  • Site visit reviewer for John’s Hopkin’s, (1998, 1999), Princeton (2000), for NCI Intramural Program (2000)
  • Member, AIDS and Related Research study session (1994-1999)
  • Ad Hoc reviewer for USDA (1992-1995)
  • Ad Hoc reviewer for FDA (1990-1992)
  • Sigma Xi
  • Phi Beta Kappa
  • University of Nebraska College of Arts and Sciences, Outstanding Research and Creative Achievement in Science Award (2003)
  • Sigma Xi Most Outstanding Scientist Award (2005)
  • Chair, special review panel (1999, 2001, 2005)
  • Member of the Kansas University AIDS task force (1990-1992)
  • Scientific advisor to Kansas governor's AIDS task force (1988-1992)
  • Midwestern State University Association lecturer (1989-90)
  • Cora Downs Award for most distinguished undergraduate
  • Editorial board: Open AIDS Journal (Editor-in-chief), Current HIV Research (Editor-in-Chief), Open Infectious Disease Journal, Journal of Neurovirology, Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology