Behavioral Momentum essentially means to build up momentum to what you really want the child to do, by giving them easy tasks or demands, that they are highly likely to do first before presenting them with more difficult tasks. Instead of approaching the child with what you want them to do, you start with what they are most likely to want to do.
Chaining is a behavioral strategy used to teach students with autism complex behaviors by breaking them down into smaller sequential steps. One of two methods, forward chaining and backward chaining, is selected based on the nature of the task or the skill levels of the child.
Choice MakingChoice making is an effective intervention for increasing the active participation of individuals with autism by allowing the indivdual to make a choice between at least 2 items/activities/reinforcers, etc.
Conversation StartersConversation starters are useful strategies for addressing initial conversations between children with autism and their peers
Fading is the procedure of transferring stimuli as prompts to the natural stimulus. The goal is for students to produce correct responses and minimize errors when only the natural stimulus is provided.
PrimingPriming is an intervention that helps prepare children for an upcoming activity or event with which they normally have difficulty. Priming can occur at home or in the classroom and is most effective if it is built into the child’s routine
PromptingPrompting is used to increase desired behaviors and skill acquisition. When delivering prompts, the instructor should be mindful of the student’s learning level and fading considerations. Reinforcement should occur after a correct response and should be contingent upon the level of performance independence desired.
The purpose of using reinforcement is to increase the frequency of a desired behavior occurring again under similar situations. As such, a reinforcer is the consequence of a behavior, leading to future occurrence. Positive reinforcement means the presentation of a consequence increases a behavior whereas negative reinforcement removes a negative stimulus to increase the occurrence of a behavior.
Rules and Routines
Rules and routines can prevent problem behavior by providing information about what to do in a certain environment. Students can benefit from rules and routines as structure alleviates their confusion across settings and activities throughout the day.
Shaping is a systematic process of reinforcing successive approximations to a target behavior. The technique is used when students need to learn new behavior. A teacher identifies the student’s behavior and provides reinforcement only for closer approximations toward the desired behavior, which is a terminal behavior of the shaping process. Shaping is especially useful when the desired behavior is difficult to learn by instruction, imitation, and verbal or physical cues.
Social narratives or stories can be used in various ways. Educators, paraeducators, parents, or other professionals can write social narratives for various situations. Based on the child’s needs and functioning levels in an academic or nonacademic setting, social narratives can guide the student toward appropriate behaviors or responses.
Visual SchedulesVisual schedules are an environmental support that accommodates the need for predictability and decreases anxiety about the unknown. Visual schedules take an abstract concept (i.e., time) and present it in a more concrete and manageable form using words and/or pictures.
The goal of a structured work system is to promote independence by providing the individual information on what to do in a designated work area. In structured work systems tasks and activities are organized in a way that are understandable to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)