Use the resources on this page to help you and your mentors make the most of your mentoring relationship.

You're on your way!

Obtaining good mentoring is one of the best investments you can make with your time in graduate school. It takes effort and patience in the beginning, but the returns are great and will have a positive impact on you for many years after graduation.

Good mentoring will give you the edge as you prepare to enter the profession of your choice. Not only do good mentors help you gain solid knowledge and skills — more important, they help you maintain a positive attitude and acquire the self-reliance you need for embarking confidently on your path to success. Remember, many graduate students will follow in your footsteps. You, too, will mentor many others over the course of your professional life, whatever your career trajectory. The mentoring relationships you establish now will directly and indirectly benefit numerous individuals and institutions down the road. On this wonderful journey, we wish you every success!


Use these to help define your expectations, set goals, plan meetings, and move forward with your professional development.

Further Reading

Adams, H.G. (1992). Mentoring: An essential factor in the doctoral process for minority students. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, The GEM Program.

Anderson, M.S. (Ed.). (1998). The experience of being in graduate school: An exploration. New Directions for Higher Education, 26(101), Spring 1998. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Antony, J.S. & Taylor, E. (2004). Theories and strategies of academic career socialization: Improving paths to the professoriate for black graduate students. In D.H. Wulff, A.E.

Austin, and Associates. Paths to the professoriate: Strategies for enriching the preparation of future faculty (pp. 92-114). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Basalla, S., & Debelius, M. (2001). So what are you going to do with that? A guide to career-changing for MAs and Ph.D.s. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Bellows, L.H., & Perry, A. (2005). Assessing graduate student mentorship and development. Unpublished manuscript.

Brainard, S.G., Harkus, D.A., & St. George, M.R. (1998). A curriculum for training mentors and mentees: Guide for administrators. Seattle: Women in Engineering Initiative, WEPAN Western Regional Center, University of Washington.

Brown, M.C., Davis, G.L., & McClendon, S.A. (1999). Mentoring graduate students of color: Myths, models and modes. Peabody Journal of Education, 74(2), 105-118.

Chandler, C. (1996). Mentoring and women in academia: Reevaluating the traditional model. NWSA Journal, 8, 79-100.

Chao, G.T. (1997). Mentoring phases and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 15-28.

Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy. (1997). Adviser, teacher, role model, friend: On being a mentor to students in science and engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press [On-line]. Available: readingroom/books/mentor.

Daloz, L.A. (1999). Mentor: Guiding the journey of adult learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Damrosch, D. (1995). We scholars: Changing the culture of the university. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Faison, J.J. (1996). The next generation: The mentoring of African American graduate students on predominately white university campuses. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). ERIC Document # ED401344.

Frierson, H.T., Jr. (Ed.). (1997). Mentoring and diversity in higher education. In Diversity in Higher Education, v. 1. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Gaff, J.G., Pruitt-Logan, A.S., & Weibl, R.A. (2000). Building the faculty we need: Colleges and universities working together. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Gaff, J.G., Pruitt-Logan, A.S., Sims, L.B., & Denecke, D.D. (2003). Preparing future faculty in the humanities and social sciences: A guide for change. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.

Gaffney, N.A. (Ed.). (1995). A conversation about mentoring: Trends and models. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.

Goldsmith, J.A., Komlos, J., & Schine Gold, P. (2001). The Chicago guide to your academic career: A portable mentor for scholars from graduate school through tenure. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Gray, G. (2000). Producing results: Effective management and mentoring in academic labs. AWIS Magazine, 29(1), 14-18. Gross, R.A. (February, 2002). From 'old boys' to mentors. Chronicle of Higher Education [On-line]. Available:

Heinrich, K.T. (1995). Doctoral advisement relationships between women. Journal of Higher Education, 66(4), 447-469.

Hoyt, S.K. (1999). Mentoring with class: Connections between social class and developmental relationships in the academy. In A.J. Murrell, F.J. Crosby, & R.J. Ely (Eds.), Mentoring dilemmas: Developmental relationships within multicultural organizations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, W.B. (2003). A framework for conceptualizing competence to mentor. Ethics & Behavior, 13(2), 127-151.

Johnson, I.H., & Ottens, A.J. (Eds.). (1996). Leveling the playing field: Promoting academic success for students of color. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kochan, F.K. (2002). (Ed.). The organizational and human dimensions of successful mentoring programs and relationships. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publications.

Lark, J.S., & Croteau, J.M. (1998). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual doctoral students' mentoring relationships with faculty in counseling psychology: A qualitative study. Counseling Psychologist, 26(5), 754-776.

Lentin, J. (2004). Strategies for success in mentoring: A handbook for mentors and protégés. Edmonton, Alberta: The Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists, and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA).

Lovitts, B.E. (2001). Leaving the ivory tower: The causes and consequences of departure from doctoral study. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Luna, G., & Cullen, D. (1998). Do graduate students need mentoring? College Student Journal, 32(3), 322-330.

Mintz, B., & Rothblum, E. (Eds). (1997). Lesbians in academia: Degrees of freedom. New York: Routledge.

Moss, P., Debres, K.J., Cravey, A., Hyndman, J., Hirschboeck, K.K., & Masucci, M. (1999). Toward mentoring as feminist praxis: Strategies for ourselves and others. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 23(3), 413-427.

Murrel, A.J., Crosby, F.J., & Ely, R.J. (1999). Mentoring dilemmas: Developmental relationships within multicultural organizations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). National postsecondary student aid survey, 1999-2000. Graduate data analysis system. U.S. Department of Education. [On-line]. Available:

National Opinion Research Center. (2002). Doctorate recipients in United States universities: Summary report. [On-line]. Available:

Nerad, M. (1995). Beyond traditional modes of mentoring. In N.A. Gaffney (Ed.), A Conversation about mentoring: Trends and models. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.

Nerad, M., Aanerud, R., & Cerny, J. (2004). "So you want to become a professor!": Lessons from the Ph.D.s — Ten years later study. In D.H. Wulff, A.E. Austin, and Associates, Paths to the professoriate: Strategies for enriching the preparation of future faculty (pp. 137-158). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Newhouse, M. (1997). Cracking the academia nut: A guide to preparing for your academic career. Cambridge: Harvard University, Office of Career Services.

Newhouse, M. (1993). Outside the ivory tower: A guide for academics considering alternative careers. Cambridge: Harvard University, Office of Career Services.

Nyquist, J.D., & Woodford, B.J. (2000). Re-envisioning the Ph.D.: What concerns do we have? Seattle: University of Washington, Center for Instructional Development & Research.

Nyquist, J.D., & Woodford, B.J. (2004). Re-envisioning the Ph.D.: A challenge for the 21st century. In D.H. Wulff, A.E. Austin, and Associates, Paths to the professoriate: Strategies for enriching the preparation of future faculty (pp. 194-216). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Nyquist, J.D., & Wulff, D.H. (1996). Working effectively with graduate assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

President's Task Force on Gay, Bisexual, Lesbian and Transgender Issues. (2000). Affirming diversity: Moving from tolerance to acceptance and beyond. Seattle: University of Washington. Available:

Pruitt-Logan, A.S., Gaff, J.G., & Jentoft, J.E. (2002). Preparing future faculty in the sciences and mathematics. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.

Ragins, B.R., & Scandura, T.A. (1994). Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 957-971.

Rittner, B., & Trudeau, P. (1997). The women's guide to surviving graduate school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rossman, M.H. (1995). Negotiating graduate school: A guide for graduate students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sandler B.R., Silverberg. L.A., & Hall, R.M. (1996). The chilly classroom climate: A guide to improve the education of women. Washington, D.C. National Association for Women in Education.

Sheffer, H., & Woodford, B. (August, 2002). How to plan for a career before you have one. Chronicle of Higher Education [On-line]. Available: 2002082601c.htm

Struthers, N.J. (1995). Differences in mentoring: A function of gender or organizational rank? Journal of Social Behavior & Personality: Special Issue: Gender in the workplace, 10(6) 265- 272.

Sudol, D., & Hall, A.M. (1991). Back to school: Warnings and advice to the older graduate student. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (Boston, MA, March 21-23, 1991). ERIC Document # ED332217.

Suedkamp Wells, K., & Fagen, A. (January, 2002). A little advice from 32,000 graduate students. Chronicle of Higher Education [On-line]. Available: 2002011401c.htm.

Syverson, P.D. (1996). Assessing demand for graduate and professional programs. New Directions for Institutional Research, 92, 17-29.

Tenenbaum, H.R., Crosby, F.J., & Gliner, M.D. (2001). Mentoring relationships in graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(3), 326-341.

Tierney, W.G., & Rhodes, R.A. (1994). Faculty socialization as a cultural process: A mirror of institutional commitment. ASHEERIC Higher Education Report No, 93-6. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University School of Education and Human Development.

Toth, E. (1997). Ms. Mentor's impeccable advice for women in academia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Vesilind, P.A. (2000). So you want to be a professor? A handbook for graduate students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wallace, J.M. (Ed.). (1999). Special reflections from the field: Mentoring apprentice ethnographers through field schools. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 30(2), 210-219.

Warner, A.B. (2001). Recruiting and retaining African American graduate students. ADE Bulletin, 1(128), 39-40.

Wulff, D.H., Austin A.E., and Associates. (2004). Paths to the professoriate: Strategies for enriching the preparation of future faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wunsch, M.A. (Ed.). (1994). Mentoring revisited: Making an impact on individuals and institutions. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 57, Spring. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Zachary, L.J. (2000). The mentor's guide: Fostering effective learning relationships. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Zelditch, M. (1990). Mentor roles. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Western Association of Graduate Schools (Tempe, AZ, March 16-18).